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How to connect two wires together?

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This content has been translated » The original version can be found here
  • Just because you can connect the two wires together doesn't mean you should ... but if you must, the article below will show you how. Of course, the easiest way to connect two conductors is to twist them together. If we know how to do this, the connection can be rugged and mechanically strong, ensuring good electrical contact. However, if you do not know how to make such a connection, check out the video below. It shows several methods used to connect cables together - note how different techniques differ in terms of their mechanical strength.



    This method, while it actually allows two wires to be connected, has its drawbacks. Making such connections is very tedious, especially if there should be many of them in a given installation. In addition, the length of the cable used for the connection is large, which translates into how much less wire we have to install, if there are really a lot of such connections, or how much more we have to pay for the wiring of the system (not including labor and personnel costs). that will make these connections). Importantly, such connections cannot be made under voltage under any circumstances, which is sometimes required (and what the connectors are for).

    Caution


    Just because you can connect two wires together doesn't mean you should connect them. They often differ in spacing and the type of conductor (i.e. wire vs line). The thinnest wire in the entire system must be capable of carrying the maximum circuit current. Moreover, the connection between the two wires can increase the series resistance further, especially if the connection is not good or is not matched to the diameter of the wire, for example. This can lead to the connection becoming too hot.

    Depending on the voltage and current, there are other standards governing this type of connection. These standards exist for a reason and if you ignore them you do so at your own risk. Sometimes it ends in very unexpected or unpleasant ways. A typical example provided by the author of the article is a rejection of a fire compensation claim due to the use of an inappropriate connector in the power network, even if the connector is in a completely different place in the circuit than the fire occurred. With that in mind, let's take a look at the most popular and used cable connectors for electrical wiring.

    How to connect two wires together?
    Electric Cube

    If you want to connect several different circuits with each other, you can use an electrical cube as shown on the left. The subject of cubes is very wide - this is a huge group of connectors that would be difficult to cover in this paragraph, so let's just stop presenting this very popular connector here - most of us had the opportunity to use this type of connection.

    How to connect two wires together?
    "Nuts" for wires

    These types of connectors as shown on the right (Molex 0191600039) come in many colors and sizes. They are very popular in electrical installations (not as much in Poland as, for example, in the USA). They are used for connections in the power grid within the premises. The nut consists of a truncated cone made of an insulating material with a thread inside.

    The use of such a connection is very simple - take the two isolated ends of the cable, insert them into the cone and just twist. Such a nut allows you to easily connect even grossly mismatched wire diameters, wire with a rope, and also allows you to connect two, three or even four wires at once. Provided that all of the exposed conductors are in the insulated cone, the connection is fully insulated. However, the joint itself is not very strong and a more forceful tug can cause it to disconnect, meaning you should consider whether there may be any mechanical stress in your application. The advantage of this connector is the fact that it can also be unscrewed to allow modifications.

    How to connect two wires together?
    How to connect two wires together?
    Fork terminals

    Anyone familiar with automotive wiring will know what fork terminals look like. For those who have not heard about them, on the left there are two photos showing such a connector: at the top - in the female version (Panduit DNF18-250-M) and at the bottom - in the male version (Panduit DNF14-250FIM-M).

    Such terminals are crimped on insulated wires with the help of a special device - a crimping tool. Connectors are available in a wide range of insulation colors; very often (as in this case) the color is also an indicator of the recommended thickness of the wire on which the terminal should be crimped.

    Usually the "spike" part of this connection is attached to a relay or other device block, and the other part is put on it and sits on the cable, however, as can be seen in the lower left photo, there are also these types of crimp connectors.

    Make sure that the entire connection is completely insulated. This is achieved by special connectors that insulate the connection. Fork connectors of this type offer a fairly high resistance to accidental disconnection, even in the event of stronger pulls.

    How to connect two wires together?
    Butt crimp connections

    These connectors use the same tools for both crimping and insulation colors as spade lugs, butt connectors (right for examplePhoenix Contact connector 3240061) are often found in the same manufacturer series as the fork terminals.

    Such a connector is simply a metal tube (sometimes insulated) into which the stripped end of one wire is placed at one end of the tube, crimped, and repeated for the other wire on the other end.

    How to connect two wires together?
    Ball joints ( bullet connector )

    The above-mentioned crimp connection is eternal. However, there is an intersection between a butt joint and a fork joint which is often referred to as a "ball joint" or more commonly in English. bullet connector "Shown on the left is a pair of these Panduit connectors: EBV18-4MB-Q and EBV18-4B-Q.

    This type of connection consists of a bullet-shaped metal tube (with a wire clamped on one side), and a similar tube in which the so-called the 'bullet' retracts. An electric wire is also connected to the other tube.

    How to connect two wires together?
    Scotchlok quick coupler

    Sometimes we want to use an existing cable for the connection. Of course, you can always cut it and make a three-way connection, for example. There is also a not very elegant and correct practice to remove a small section of insulation on the wire and wrap / solder the tap.

    However, a much better solution is available - Scotchlock couplings shown on the right.

    This connector has two paths. The main wire (in insulation) is inserted into one of them, and the tap is inserted into the other. The entire connector is closed on both wires, which may require the use of pliers, especially with larger wire cross-sections or thicker insulation. When closing the connector, a special blade is pressed into the insulation, and after passing through it, it touches the inner conductor, short-circuiting both wires located in the element. This type of technology (contact cutting of insulation) is called IDT.

    How to connect two wires together?
    IDT butt connectors

    Now that we've introduced one IDT connector, we can see a few more of this type. The photo on the left shows an exemplary IDT butt joint (Keystone 8377). There are many series of these types of connectors, such as the Keystone i-Clamp shown and the Coolsplice series from TE Connectivity.

    How to connect two wires together?
    Wago quick coupler

    Finally, here is a well-recognized product from Wago. The quick connector presented on the right (Wago 221) is dedicated to connecting two wires with each other, but they are available in versions up to five connections. Isolated ends of wires are placed in the connector, which are snapped by pressing a lever.

    Thanks to the lever, fastening and unfastening the connector is very easy - the connection is extremely reusable. Additional accessories for Wago connectors are also available, which allow, for example, to permanently mount the entire connector block in the housing.

    Summary

    In the case of all connection options presented above, it is worth remembering that some of them - such as cubes or nuts - are extremely universal and very popular, while others are extremely specialized for a specific application. You should always take the trouble to choose the right connector to make connections in the power grid or other installation we are building.

    Source: https://www.eeweb.com/profile/aubrey-kagan/ar...ive-approaches-to-connecting-electrical-wires

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    About Author
    ghost666
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    ghost666 wrote 10550 posts with rating 8905, helped 157 times. Live in city Warszawa. Been with us since 2003 year.
  • #2
    bubu1769
    Level 41  
    And where are the self-soldering connectors?
  • #5
    spec220
    Level 20  
    Scotchlok quick coupler and nuts are probably the worst quick couplers I know. There are also front sleeves with solder inside (instead of a press, a lighter or a heat gun will suffice). In this video (method 2), my colleague put it a bit wrong. If, when dividing the line, twist it properly, you can "hang" on it.
  • #6
    Xaveri
    Level 17  
    The question is how to connect cables with remarkably two different cross-sections. For example, I have a situation that I want (in the car) to connect a cable with a cross section of 10mm2 or even 16mm2 to 2.5mm2. Scotchlok won't work here. The only thing that comes to my mind is to remove the insulation on a fairly long distance, interweave and then self-vulcanizing tape ...
  • #7
    spec220
    Level 20  
    Xaveri wrote:
    The question is how to connect cables with remarkably two different cross-sections. For example, I have a situation that I want (in the car) to connect a cable with a cross section of 10mm2 or even 16mm2 to 2.5mm2. Scotchlok won't work here. The only thing that comes to my mind is to remove the insulation on a fairly long distance, interweave and then self-vulcanizing tape ...


    This is what it is all about. Nothing can replace a well-made interlacing (it happened to connect a few 2.5 mm2 with one 16 mm2) as needed, and it was intertwined into single wires of one cord.
    the ends (connectors) also come out differently. It also happens that after pressing you can tear the wire out, so I prefer to solder the cable on a very important connector connection with Sn99Cu1 (cross-sections up to 6mm2)
  • #9
    Jacekser
    Level 21  
    I found something like this:
    How to connect two wires together?
    Detachable strips for WECO wiring harnesses. I use in place of connector cubes, which lose good contact after a few years and burn up with higher currents.
  • #10
    miroslaw wielki
    Conditionally unlocked
    In the car, it always isolates the vein and wraps the thinner one around and solders it. Some on the bank. And a heat-shrinkable sleeve for that.
  • #11
    spec220
    Level 20  
    One of the most reliable electrical connections that I use (a cord and a wire with a cross section of no more than 6mm2) is connection with a "spring" made of silver steel and Sn99Cu1 solder

    [movie: 16e6c693d3] https://filmy.elektroda.pl/73_1572639096.mp4 [/ movie: 16e6c693d3]
  • #12
    palmus
    Level 32  
    I have a question: what fittings to use that will go under the plaster?
  • #13
    spec220
    Level 20  
    palmus wrote:
    I have a question: what fittings to use that will go under the plaster?


    It is not known what a colleague means when writing under plaster?
    Ie. to a junction box, or maybe staking a damaged cable under the plaster?

    Wago connectors are good for connecting cans (clamps do not loosen over the years)
    When it comes to cutting out a damaged cable under the plaster, it should not be cut out, but if the apartment was newly renovated and the cable was damaged, e.g. with a drill, its wires can be connected by professional soldering.
  • #14
    SylwekK
    Level 31  
    Nobody mentioned it, and there is still wire welding :) It is done quickly, and the strength of such a connection is high and very reliable in terms of conductivity. There is no chance for a "spark" to occur due to tarnish or deformation of the connection after heating, eg by too high current flowing, and the connection resistance is lower than during soldering, which may be important for many connections in series.
  • #15
    kotbury
    Gantry automation specialist
    I have been picking cables for several years and time has verified slightly different systems.
    As for the car - of course where necessary - there must be disconnectable terminals (and the company is a different system).
    Permanent connection of two cables - secure (and quick to use) are the compression sleeves integrated with a thick heat shrink, for the patient the method of twisting the cables is the same as in the first post on the top photo - old car mechanics manuals recommended just such a twisting system (additionally supplemented with binding the cables against the counter-directional twisting). And soldering - where there is no space; in principle, it is not recommended due to the loss of ductility due to temperature and tin - but I have had some decades of soldering repairs and somehow the wires do not break. Scotchlock couplings are a tragic solution (as someone has already stated) - maybe quickly but after a few years they lose contact.

    And the 230V mains - the good old torsion (possibly supplemented with the mentioned tapered nuts with threads, and even better with a spring) holds up well.
    Weight and derivatives - they are ok but they take up a lot of space (and the price in the case of connectors with the possibility of unfastening the sporawa). All cubes with screw connections only as a last resort and where there is access. From the autopsy - in my and several neighbors' cottage - blocks from the Gierek era - (due to the aluminum wires - one twist and no piece), socket screw terminals were used and 10 years after assembly there was a Sisyphean job looking for terminals (especially in cheerfully plastered on thick cans) that have loosened by themselves. Then there was pulling the wires from the tubes (fortunately then everything was carried out in aluminum conduits) and pulling the copper.
  • #16
    spec220
    Level 20  
    Another certain electrical connection (aluminum or copper) is using a classic cube on the so-called bookmark. The fact that cubes must be used for larger vein cross-sections, and sometimes it has to be split.

    How to connect two wires together?


    SylwekK wrote:
    Nobody mentioned it, and there is still wire welding


    In home installations? I don't really bloat. I still understand the high and the highest voltage overhead lines, although most of them are also notched-forged connections.
    The most common welding of wires is in the fiber optic technique.
  • #17
    SylwekK
    Level 31  
    spec220 wrote:
    In home installations?

    Why not? :) My installation was welded, and so was my father. His apartment is almost 40 years old and there has NEVER been a single fault, such as flashing light bulbs or a break in the socket). In the same way, I also improved the installations of several friends who, for example, after turning on the oven, smoke from cans flew - 15 years nothing happens anymore :)
  • #18
    Janusz_kk
    Level 31  
    Then write how to weld the wires in an amateur way, because I myself tried to weld two copper 4 to the ground in the cable and # so it turned out
  • #20
    spec220
    Level 20  
    SylwekK wrote:
    This is what it looks like with me


    Wow ... Wow ...
    It's good that my colleague at least twisted these veins on a certain section, because in the place of welding to the bank the overheated copper lost its parameters.
    In addition, for such welding, a special wire is used, and not copper for air conditioning welding.

    For me personally, the best electrical connection is a spring made of silver plate + Sn99Cu1 solder.
    1) takes up little space
    2) frontal connection possible
    3) certainty of solder absorption inside the entire joint
    4) short heating time (protection of insulation against overheating)
  • #22
    SylwekK
    Level 31  
    @ spec220, I can assure you that the connection is secure and no electrodes are used for welding, but the existing copper wire is arc melted. This method is used when connecting windings in rewindable motors. Twisting the wires is essential.
  • #23
    palmus
    Level 32  
    spec220 wrote:

    When it comes to cutting out a damaged cable under the plaster, it should not be cut out, but if the apartment was newly renovated and the cable was damaged, e.g. with a drill, its wires can be connected by professional soldering.

    This is exactly what I mean: Molding is basically manageable, which is how you write soldering plus heat-shrinkable sleeves. However, I have concerns about the isolation of this, especially since such scars in the wall are plastered, and this one is hygroscopic. Differential may not forgive the leakage of electricity ...
    Should the box be properly installed at the drilling site?
  • #24
    clubber84
    Level 26  
    palmus wrote:
    Practically mastered, that is, as you write soldering plus heat-shrinkable sleeves ...

    + silicone and only plastering, precisely because of the hygroscopicity of plaster.
  • #25
    spec220
    Level 20  
    palmus wrote:
    This is exactly what I mean: Molding is basically manageable, which is how you write soldering plus heat-shrinkable sleeves. However, I have concerns about the isolation of this, especially since such scars in the wall are plastered, and this one is hygroscopic. Differential may not forgive the leakage of electricity ...
    Should the box be properly installed at the drilling site?


    On the soldered cores, a sleeve with glue + one more sleeve with glue, including the cable sheath. (for all this, you can also use a piece of conduit and inject silicone inside, but this solution is rather used in surface installations)

    Theoretically, a box, box or a sleeve should be installed in the place where the cable is damaged (depending on the need), but in practice, the appropriate cable connection also ensures safety, although it is not fully compliant with the standards.

    SylwekK wrote:
    @ spec220, I can assure you that the connection is secure and no electrodes are used for welding, but the existing copper wire is arc melted. This method is used when connecting windings in rewindable motors. Twisting the wires is essential.


    In engines, I understand ... Of course, the more powerful wires, because the thin winding wires are simply welded at the factory (unless someone does winding privately and welds everything that falls into an arc in an argon shield)

    SylwekK wrote:
    I can assure you that the connection is secure


    no doubt, in the end the joint is bolted, although this weld only increases the mechanical strength, not the electrical strength.
  • #26
    SylwekK
    Level 31  
    The weld also conducts electricity with a much larger surface area than the wire itself. This combination prevents any sparking. The fact that for many electricians welding seems strange in a home installation, it does not surprise me at all :) Someone who has been working on ankles or twisting for half his life and does not know any other method will always find the reason that welding is worse. I welded my entire apartment (about a hundred points) in maybe 20 minutes. If I were spinning my dice, this time would probably be x10. The welded connection is as if the cable was never cut. Connection resistance and durability cannot be achieved with any other method, regardless of the passage of time.
  • #27
    spec220
    Level 20  
    SylwekK wrote:
    The weld also conducts electricity with a much larger surface area than the wire itself.


    And yes, provided that the material is not overheated, which is why manufacturers of, for example, low-power motors or safety equipment use welding technology. (cheaper, faster, better)
    Examine the welded connection in your design and compare the resistance to the soldered connection using a silver plated spring (connection like in the video)

    The solder that flows into the spring leads to contact across its entire inner surface, where the spring itself turns into a conductive, solder-filled sleeve. A very strong connection, and probably the least space-consuming of all the above-mentioned connections (butt joint).

    By the way, each expert consciously chooses the joining method that, in his opinion, is the most ...
  • #28
    pi00
    Level 9  
    Does anyone have experience in repairing an extension cord that has been mowed with an electric mower? I mean, first of all, to create the original outer insulation of the cable as much as possible, but also to isolate individual wires.
    I do this:
    I solder the strand of conductors and use a heat shrink - disadvantages: you need to remove a large piece of the outer coating to put the heat shrink after soldering
    outer insulation: I wrap the wires themselves with insulating tape 2-3 times, only then I connect (insulate) the original outer insulation. with the new one.
    The extension cord is in motion (it coils and unwinds, "walks behind the mower") and I realize that nothing can replace the original.

    Someone uses a self-amalgamating tape, and if so, would it work in the described case?

    @ spec220 hardly anything can be seen in this video.
  • #29
    SylwekK
    Level 31  
    @ spec220, good luck soldering the whole home installation with a spring :) If someone likes it, has time and he can afford it, go ahead :)
    Let's choose the method to the needs ... Simply :)
  • #30
    spec220
    Level 20  
    pi00 wrote:
    hardly anything can be seen in this video.


    Tel. kom. create large files and poor quality. After conversion, there is a massacre.

    pi00 wrote:
    Someone uses a self-amalgamating tape, and if so, would it work in the described case?


    For the veins, a silicone cold-shrink sleeve (or a silicone sleeve + silicone inside), a self-vulcanizing tape or a silicone sleeve can be used for the coating, but the silicone coating is more prone to damage. down.

    SylwekK wrote:
    good luck in soldering the whole installation with a spring at home If someone likes, he has time and he can afford it, go ahead


    heh.
    To be honest, this is the first time I have met on the forum a person who welds installation at home, and for the first time someone who saves time and money on renovation in their OWN HOME.