The UPS was sent to the workshop for scrapping. It's a pity for a big case, use the opposite way and it will be a powerful charger. When once the "joy in the morning" met me for the first time, I thought: let it run for 15 minutes with 20-30A and the car would definitely start and I would make up for being late for work right away. To work by bus, in the storeroom I found a large transformer with Uo 15-16VAC. Accu plates are not cast, but pressed from Pb powder, a surface charge is formed on them, which penetrates into the volumetric one and is best charged in one-half. Full is 14.44V. A large diode in series with the H4 bulb as a limiting R and short-circuit protection with a clamp, due to the lack of thick 3x1.25mm wires. I connected the makeshift at home, the light bulb turned orange, I checked it from time to time, after m/w 3h the 45Ah accu exceeded 15V and started bubbling. The bulb indicates but loses power that should go to the accu. In order to leave them safely, e.g. throughout the night, you need an automatic device 13V ON was dropping and the relay was "rattling" and sparking. If the clamps lost contact during charging, they would burn out quickly. This was prevented by the MOS, it also protects the clamps from short circuiting. Charging starts with the accu connection with U < 5V (at least that's what each has) and supports it, doubled with a half + sine wave. In the negative, it supports only U from the accu, so how to disconnect them or make a bad contact charger OFF. The main transformer has a separate fuse, after removing it, you can apply external U to the clamps without fear and set 14.5V, information about the thresholds gives the LED in series with the Optotriac. Jumper would not have to wait for 2 hours until the timer "counts it down" or figure out how to skip it. Free transformer was great (probably also with microwave but, before I checked it, someone "used" it on Cu) classic and, I suppose, "to save yourself in 15-20 minutes". I shortened the housing with Flex, moved the back panel, etc., and presented the charger to my friend. After a good year (you know, "shoemaker without shoes") I put in such a layoutto yours but with a different timer (out of laziness, simpler printing and 2 times less monsters to drill) and for a triac relay with Ig 10mA, they issued R 1206 in terms of power, but they have a risky small distance between the ends, voltage is better 2010, the most reliable are THT 0.25- 0.6W The charger came in handy recently when I inadvertently left the car at the parking light. For something else, I needed a pulsating 12V RED diode, it worked from 3V and with Zener "13" from 14.5V. Pulsating informs you that you need to think about a new accu. BTW. Very sharp "knees" have glass, silver American Zeners, practically nothing below the "knees".
Charging does not translate to "loading" or at least not related to the battery.. What is this strange abbreviation ACCU? If you want a shortcut, write aku. And that's such a weird thing... Overall, I got to 1/3 of the description and gave up. It's a drama to read. Take more photos and let someone write a description for you..
Szymon122, I am sorry for the discomfort you experienced. I understand you perfectly, I've always had problems with understanding the simplest things, the simpler something the harder it is for me to understand. The charger charges the accu and it is "loading" and accu "charge" or, if you prefer, "charging".
after OFF Uaccu drops very slowly to the standard 12.8V, approx. 0.5-1h and the "top-up" takes several seconds. I did not measure how much but when I heard the relay click, before I came to check it again and OFF. Exactly 14.5V is important, so peerek to it. But when the blocking timer "counted off" after ON and the charger was not loaded, a generator was created: U immediately < 14.5V is OFF, > 13V ON was dropping and the relay was "rattling" and sparking. If the clamps lost contact during charging, they would burn out quickly.
Where was that relay that clicked?
On alledrogo there is a modular ammeter and voltmeter for ~ PLN 12 I use it instead of the diode and its "loading" system. This gives you a current overview of the charging parameters. I recommend
Half of the content is taken up by the adventure with the relay, it's worth separating the technical description from the historical one next time. ::Idea And where in my post does it say to replace the automatic. To make it easier for you, I even described what we throw, because it's just an indicator on the diode.
General assumptions for the charger are simple: ON from 0 to 14.5V, OFF 13V etc. At work, a few damaged drivers, etc. with very solid 2W transformers lay fallow. I've never come across a burnt or damaged one. If I didn't have them, I'd make a semi-automatic loader. Which, if it does not start the connected accu, would have to be started manually. In the example applications, the 311 collector resistor is 10kΩ. But, Ic up to 50mA i.e. you can use a relay with a 390Ω coil. It worked, but one threshold was clearly more stable than the other. Because one is practically only "resistory", regardless of whether or not there is a 311. In the second R, the hysteresis switches to ground 311, heated by 30mA of the relay current, and the semiconductors float in temperature. I set 14.5V, checked in 10 minutes and had to correct several dozen mV. She turned it the other way. And the threshold of 14.5V should be max stable. It was improved by replacing the R 22kΩ relay, etc. and controlling it inversely than before, so that the now important "upper" 14.5V threshold was "resistor" and the less important lower "semiconductor".
My charger has 1cm legs and dozens of monsters on the bottom and top of the housing, so it is quite well ventilated. I visited a friend who was gifted a few years ago with the one from the shortened UPS. Inside you can see that it was used (2 adult sons, from 3 cars), the milliohm R almost melted the plastic bracket 2 cm from it, ventilation needs to be improved. In my free time, I made and inserted the "thyristor for the relay" plate and my friend in his spare time will drill as many monsters as possible in the lid.
milliohm R almost melted the plastic bracket 2 cm away
If it's a charger, where is the current control?
I wonder what whines more after connecting a discharged battery - a transformer loaded with a DC component (one-wave rectification) or a battery. Fortunately, this one is used to charging from the alternator, where initially the currents "fly" in tens of amperes.
What current control? What for? The first word of the subject is "fast" (implicitly max fast) and at the beginning of the description it is clear why I wanted "from 20-30A". Without control I, the limiter in the event of a short circuit of the clamps and this one after improving the system is probably redundant. You've confused passing a one-way U with picking up. The differences can be found very quickly - let some 230VC through the diode and after a while ... you get the result in the form of a burnt transformer.
You've confused passing one-half U with receiving. The differences can be found very quickly - let some 230VC through the diode and after a while ... you get the result in the form of a burnt transformer.
I wasn't thinking about that. I know you can't power a transformer through a diode, that's every electrician's catechism.
I meant loading only one half of the sine wave, which, due to the lack of current control, significantly shifts the operating point on the magnetization characteristics of the core towards the saturation area. This is where the amount of heat is difficult to dissipate.
A bridge instead of a single diode would emit 4 times more heat, but it would be easier to dissipate it by placing it on a ribbed heat sink right next to the fan. This would lower the temperature of the transformer, which as a solid is difficult to cool.
I am looking at the comparator on the LM311. You write about difficulties with the proper setting of the thresholds that determine the hysteresis.
It is indeed difficult in such a simple arrangement, although not impossible. Wouldn't it be easier to use 2 operational amplifiers (LM358) or even comparators (LM393) assigning each their own threshold. The popular and thermally stabilized LM431 could be used as a voltage standard. Each threshold could be precisely adjusted without affecting the other.
I doubt if it can be easier than 311, in the first approach I had two peers, the second for hysteresis. But, I decided that it doesn't matter if the bottom is 12.8 or, for example, 13.2V, it is enough to choose R, the 14.5V threshold is important. I would not use the phrase "difficulty", I did not duplicate someone's "ready-made" and I made assumptions and checked the properties. It turned out that the relay directly from the 311 not very much and one threshold is more stable, so use it where it is important.
Simply, definitely not. I have already cured myself of simple solutions, which resulted in minimization saving 1-2 transistors, several resistors or gates. It made sense in the 1970s and 1980s, hence my extravagance